Young Justice Wiki
We will rebuild, and we will thrive.

This article needs to be expanded to meet Young Justice Wiki's standards.

Information needed
  • Season 3, 4 and the Prize

Artemis Crock is a member of the Team, originally under the name Artemis and later Tigress. A master archer, she is the former protégé of Green Arrow. She is the daughter of Lawrence and Paula Crock, and the younger sister of Jade Nguyen.

Artemis left the hero life behind with her boyfriend Wally West, but returned for an undercover mission. After staging her death, she joined Aqualad as his trusted lieutenant Tigress. She retained that name when she returned to the Team after Wally's death.


During her adolescent years, Artemis's personality was a product of her unusual upbringing. In the kill-or-be-killed culture in which her parents raised her, Artemis had to constantly fight for her life,[3] resulting in her considerably aggressive nature and willingness to solve problems with force.[9] She was also protective of her secrets, and constantly lied to her friends out of fear of being discovered as the child of villains.[9]

For the most part, Artemis is a very passionate and opinionated girl. Always ready with a witty and biting remark, she is intent on proving herself to anyone who questions her. Artemis conceals her defensive nature with an aggressive attitude, exhibiting a wild temperament that is apparent when people argue or belittle her. She readily involves herself in confrontations with little to no hesitance.[3]

Physical appearance

Artemis is a half-Caucasian and half-Vietnamese,[10][11] teenage girl of average height. She has olive-toned skin with long thick blonde hair and dark gray eyes.[6][nb 1] Artemis is slender in stature, yet has an athletic build. At the age of fifteen, Artemis had hair down to her waist, which she often kept tied back in a ponytail, both in uniform and civilian garb.

Artemis's uniform was a midriff-baring costume that highlighted her build. It was colored in various shades of green and consisted of a mask extending from the hairline to the cheekbones, a sleeveless top with a stylized arrow tip on the front, fingerless gloves, pants with black knee pads, and black combat boots. She had a black utility belt and pouch strapped on her left leg that were likely filled with assorted tools. Artemis carried a quiver along her back with a bow and a multitude of multi-purpose arrows. Her costume was apparently less than six months old as of September 4.[12] Sometime between October 1 and October 10, the costume was outfitted with stealth-tech that could be activated by pressing the arrow symbol on her top, which turned the various shades of green in her uniform into darker shades of gray.[13]

Artemis in 2016.

By 2016, Artemis has grown noticeably taller, with her hair only extending to her upper back.[14] After receiving Zatanna's Glamour Charm from Nightwing, Artemis takes the appearance of an Asian girl,[15] with slightly different facial features than normal; shoulder length jet black hair, almond shaped eyes, paler complexion, and a deeper voice.

Artemis's altered appearance

While operating as Tigress, she wears a predominantly burnt orange and black costume, with a hard orange mask that covers her forehead, nose, and cheeks resembling a stylized tiger's face. She also wears a black sheath behind her back which stores her sword and also wears a black belt to store her weapons.[16]


Early life

Nine year old Artemis.

Artemis Crock was born and raised in Gotham City.[17] Her parents were assassins. During one of their crimes, her mother, Paula became paraplegic, and as a result took the fall for her husband. Paula spent the next six years in prison, during which Artemis was raised alone by her father,[7] as her older sister ran away[5] the same year[18] due to their father's emotional and verbal abuse.[19]

Artemis's father trained her to use a bow as her primary weapon, and frequently subjected her to apparently criminal tests. The nature of most of these tests have not been specified, although while robbed of her memory Artemis suggested one such test could involve being forced to kill someone, in this case, Kid Flash.[12] Her sister Cheshire has also stated that their father regularly made the pair fight against each other.[20]

July 2010

Gotham City
July 31, 17:29 EDT

When her mother Paula was released from prison, she returned home and spoke in private with Artemis's father. She stated that she had gone straight and that she wanted Artemis to do the same, and she wanted him to leave. Unbeknownst to both of them, their conversation was overheard by Artemis who then escaped into Gotham clad in her green costume to fight crime.[7]

August 2010

Main article: Artemis in August 2010

Artemis shoots Amazo and saves Kid Flash.

During one of her nightly patrols, Artemis stumbled upon a fight between Amazo and Superboy, Robin and Kid Flash in the halls of Gotham Academy. She was inspired by them, and wanted in. Without revealing herself, she also helped them; she fought off scores of MONQIs and saved Kid Flash from being crushed.[21]

Batman and Green Arrow visited her and recruited her for the Team. Green Arrow devised a cover story for her, that she was his niece and new sidekick.[21] Her first meeting with the rest of the Team was rocky, as Red Arrow was also present and did not like his place being taken. Her first mission with the Team was overall a success, though Kid Flash blamed her for every little thing that went wrong.[3]

Artemis practiced with Green Arrow and the Team, and attended classes by Black Canary and Captain Atom. Her first missions involved a trip to the Tower of Fate,[22] an investigation into the court-martial of Nathaniel Adams[23] and an undercover operation in the Star City jail.[24]

September 2010

Main article: Artemis in September 2010

The month started with a mission in Bialya, where the Team lost access to the last six months of their memory. Artemis had no memory of becoming a hero, and had to trust people whom she did not know, or only knew as enemies of her father.[12]

She continued her patrols with Green Arrow in Star City,[25] and started classes at Gotham Academy. She was still uncomfortable adjusting to the new environment.[5]

On the same day as her first school day, the Cave was attacked by Red Inferno and Red Torpedo. Together with Robin, she had to stop them. Because the two robots had managed to overpower their superpowered teammates, Artemis heavily doubted her ability to defeat them. Encouraging words from Robin did not help much, but when he too was captured and all pressure was on her, she pulled through. However, Red Tornado returned and seemingly betrayed them.[5]

For the rest of the month, Batman assigned them two related missions, involving Brain's Kobra-Venom operations in India[26] and Bwunda.[27]

October 2010

Main article: Artemis in October 2010

The Team was sent on a dangerous mission against the Injustice League. They succeeded, with help from the Justice League.[28] Not long after, Zatara decided it was time to introduce his daughter Zatanna to the Team. She and Artemis got along well. Though her father forbade her to join, she snuck out with them to track down Red Tornado.[13]

What was meant to be a simple telepathic training exercise went horribly wrong after Miss Martian's emotions took over after Artemis "died". Artemis slipped into a coma, from which she did not awake until after Miss Martian was "killed" as well. For the next week, she, like other members of the Team, was still in shock about their experiences.[29]

On Halloween, Artemis discovered that Superboy and Miss Martian were a couple. She was upset about it, and Zatanna offered her a distraction: crime fighting in New York City. They stopped several small crimes until they encountered Harm, whom they defeated with Secret's help.[9]

November 2010

Main article: Artemis in November 2010

Early on in the month, Artemis continued to pressure Zatanna into joining, and she eventually got her wish, though not in the way she wanted. In a battle with Klarion, Zatara gave up his body to Nabu, and Zatanna moved into the Cave.[30]

At week later, the Team threw Wally a surprise party in the Cave. Witnessing Wally's attempts to get a kiss from M'gann, Artemis decided to tell him she was taken. Artemis took some delight in seeing him disappointed.

The party was cut short by a series of ice fortresses attacking the continental United States. Artemis helped destroy one alongside her mentor, Green Arrow.[31]

December 2010

Main article: Artemis in December 2010

The more and more Artemis worked with the Team and Green Arrow, her confidence grew. But when she learned her place on the Team was because her mother had begged Batman and Green Arrow to help her—and not, as she thought, because she saved Kid Flash—she began to question her position.

Red Arrow returned on the Team and had a mission involving Sportsmaster, and Artemis volunteered. The rest thought she was just eager to show herself off against Red Arrow, but at least part of it was to assure herself she earned a place. Unfortunately, Cheshire and Sportsmaster threatened to expose her secrets, and she botched the mission. This did not sit well with her teammates, especially Red Arrow, and to a lesser extent Kid Flash.[8] It took another mission together to regain the trust of Red Arrow.[2]

Meanwhile, the Light had hoped to blackmail her by exposing her secrets. After Superboy confessed his connection to Lex Luthor, Artemis decided to tell her friends about her own family. They took it well; Robin already knew, something that shocked her and Kid Flash finally realized why she failed the earlier mission. With renewed resolve, the Team took out an ambush by the Light,[32] and later the mind-controlled Justice League aboard the Watchtower. When the Light was beaten back, Kid Flash and Artemis decided to show their true feelings for each other and kissed.[33]

January 2011

Kid Flash and Artemis celebrate their victory.

The Watchtower
January 1, post-00:00 EST

At the stroke of New Year, Wally picked up Artemis and they kissed. Both agreed they should have done it sooner.[33]


Artemis and Wally moved to Palo Alto,[14] and enrolled in Stanford University,[34] where she pursued a double-major in Human Biology and Comparative Literature.[35] After spending freshman year in the Toyon Hall dorm, Artemis moved to an off-campus house where she lived with Wally and Brucely.[36]

February 2015

Mount Justice
February 16, 21:31 EST

Artemis and Kid Flash entered the Mission Room. Artemis immediately apologized for a poor joke from Wally, blaming it on a lack of pancakes. She also had to reign him in when he expressed excitement about a kidnapping. The kidnap victim, Helena Sandsmark, was taken from Greece, and Artemis led a squad to investigate.[37]

February 17, 07:15 EET

The Bio-Ship dropped Artemis and Alpha Squad off near the dig-site where doctor Sandsmark was last seen. They quickly discovered the presence of the League of Shadows and Cheshire. Artemis confronted her sister, but she escaped. The squad had to fight through several squads of Shadows until they came to the dig site. They found a tablet device that belonged to Sandsmark. It picked up a signal, leading the squad to an amphitheater.

Taking a rest, Artemis investigated the tablet. She discovered Sandsmark had left a message on it, explaining that the League of Shadows was after a Babylonian artifact she recovered.

Cheshire had set up a trap in the amphitheater, and attacked them. The Team defeated her. With Cheshire out of contention, Aquagirl contacted Artemis explaining the artifact might be in Athens.[37]

February 17, 08:41 EET

At the Museum of Natural History, Alpha Squad fought its way through several squads of Shadows, all the while avoiding debris from increasing seismic activity. Artemis discovered someone else was involved: her father, Sportsmaster. They chased him to the Antiquities wing, and found him when he had just stolen the artifact. They fought him, but when a helicopter arrived, Sportsmaster could escape with the artifact. Artemis managed to plant a tracer on him.

With Sportsmaster gone, Alpha Squad could focus on civilians, who were still trapped in the museum, which had become increasingly unstable. With help from John Stewart, they shepherded them outside, fighting off Shadows along the way.[37]

Mount Justice
February 17, 14:31 EST

Artemis and her squad returned to the Cave to debrief. Wally comforted her after the family fight, and the Team looked at the tracer. It led to Siberia, which Superboy investigated. Superboy recovered two fragments, and found reason to investigate LexCorp in Santa Prisca.[38] Nightwing recovered a third artifact in Gotham City, and found Sandsmark.[39] It leads them to Bialya, where they stopped the Light from waking Tiamat, though it cost Aquagirl her life.[40]

Mount Justice
February 18, 09:59 EST

Batman debriefed the Team and congratulated them on a job well done. Artemis disagreed, citing the loss of Aquagirl as a heavy blow to the Team and Garth in particular. Nightwing used it as motivation to continue the fight against the Light.[40]

Some time later, Artemis and Wally decided to retire from heroics and focus on their studies.

December 2015

Palo Alto
December 1, 05:16 PST

Wally and Artemis talked with Dick via video call to congratulate him on his birthday. It was early, but because of their studies, neither had gone to bed yet. Dick was forced to cut off the conversation when his female guest for the night arrived. Wally commented on his social standing as a "dog", and Artemis was shocked to recognize her old classmate Bette Kane.[41]

February 2016

Palo Alto
February 14, 00:03 PST

Artemis stayed up late for Wally to return home. He told her about his day—trying to persuade Red Arrow to get his act back together—and how it was a failure. Artemis consoled him, and was surprised after all of that, Wally remembered Valentine's Day, for the first time in five years. She had a special treat prepared for him: a fully stocked fridge.[14]

March 2016

Main article: Artemis in March 2016

Aqualad needed help for his deep cover in the Light, and he and Nightwing recruited Artemis.[42] Aqualad's position had to be secured, and for that to happen, he had to "kill" Artemis. She came out of retirement for a mission to Cape Canaveral, where they faked her death. With a special Glamour Charm, they concealed her identity, allowing her to go undercover.[43] As "Tigress", she posed as Aqualad's hand-picked lieutenant, and helped him in his role as the Light's chief field operative. She was still hesitant about many things, such as blowing up Mount Justice.[16]

During a raid on the Partner's research labs, Miss Martian attacked Aqualad out of anger, and learned of Artemis's cover.[44]

April 2016

Atlantic Ocean
April 9, 1:16 EDT

Tigress rested in her quarters, pondering how things went so wrong with her undercover mission. Her thoughts were interrupted as Black Manta summoned her to Kaldur's quarters. There, Manta revealed that Psimon was going to restore Kaldur's memories. Tigress realized that, if Psimon was successful, he would learn the truth about her and Kaldur.

Manta told Tigress he sensed that Kaldur cared deeply for her, then left her with Kaldur and Psimon. As Psimon began to mentally prepare himself, Tigress secretly shot a dart at Psimon's neck. As Psimon was about to begin, he suddenly attacked Tigress, realized she had drugged him and wondered why. He used his mental powers to learn that Tigress was really Artemis, but before he could do anything else, he passed out.

Manta, who had observed the situation on a monitor, rushed to Kaldur's quarters. Tigress told him she didn't know what had happened and wondered if Miss Martian had left a telepathic virus in Kaldur's mind. She suggested that Miss Martian was the only one who could restore Kaldur's mind. Manta agreed to Tigress's plan to kidnap Miss Martian and force her to help Kaldur, but told her that Deathstroke would accompany her.[45]

April 9, 06:20 CDT

As M'gann and Lagoon Boy arrived, they were ambushed by Tigress and Deathstroke. Tigress telepathically explained to M'gann that she needed her help to save Kaldur and to make the abduction look good. M'gann and Tigress faced off as Lagoon Boy battled Deathstroke, who eventually took L'gann down. With M'gann distracted, Tigress set off explosives that burst into flames, weakening M'gann and allowing Deathstroke to place an inhibitor collar on her. The two then departed with M'gann aboard the Manta-Flyer.[45]

Atlantic Ocean
April 9, post-07:20 EDT

On board the Manta-Sub, Black Manta ordered Miss Martian to restore Kaldur's memories or forfeit her life. He left Tigress with her, who ordered Miss Martian to get started. Communicating telepathically, M'gann told Tigress fixing one's mind is not as easily done as breaking it and that any intrusion by her may be perceived by Kaldur as a threat. Tigress told M'gann to take her into Kaldur's mind as well, as she believed she would not be perceived as a threat. Realizing there was no other choice, M'gann agreed.

The inside of Kaldur's mind was represented by Atlantis in ruins. At first, Artemis believed they were underwater, but M'gann reminded her that nothing was real. The two were then attacked by Tula. Artemis tried to reason with her but then reminded herself that it really wasn't Tula. M'gann, though, was overcome with guilt and succumbing to Tula's attacks. Artemis took it upon herself to locate Aqualad, eventually finding him, only he had no facial features. She was able to convince Aqualad that his memories could be restored. Artemis then brought Aqualad, whose facial features were now restored, and got M'gann to get past her guilt and begin the process of restoring Aqualad's mind.

Tigress's thoughts were interrupted by Black Manta, who told her that it has been six hours since he left her. Manta at first believed Miss Martian was stalling, but realized she made progress when Kaldur recognized his father. Manta left to speak privately with Tigress, telling her he intended to kill Miss Martian when she finished helping Kaldur. Outwardly, Tigress seemed pleased, but inwardly, she realized the situation just got worse.[45]

May 2016

Atlantic Ocean
May 27, 01:00 EDT

Artemis reveals herself to her family.

Tigress was with Kaldur and Miss Martian, with Miss Martian apparently slow in making progress restoring Kaldur's mind, so Black Manta gave Miss Martian 24 hours to finish or lose her life. Unknown to Manta, Kaldur had been playing possum while he and Tigress figured how to save M'gann's life. They were now forced to put another plan into action. Tigress told Deathstroke she needed to stretch her legs and get coffee, but after she left Kaldur's quarters, she made her way to the control room to deactivate M'gann's inhibitor collar.

On her way there, the alarm sounded because Deathstroke noticed that Cheshire had invaded Kaldur's quarters. She told the troopers in the control room to go protect Kaldur, then began searching for the collar control. Deathstroke then notified her of Cheshire's presence and that Miss Martian had intervened, ordering Tigress to return to Kaldur's room. Tigress first continued her search, ultimately disabling M'gann's collar, but as she headed back to Kaldur's room, she got no response from an attempted telepathic communication. She then encountered Sportsmaster dueling with Black Manta, who told Tigress to deal with Sportsmaster and he would save his son.

Tigress and Sportsmaster fought, but just as Sportsmaster had Tigress down, M'gann intervened, pulling the two, Kaldur and Cheshire into a mindscape. Cheshire first thought it was one of her memories, but then Tigress said it was hers and revealed her true identity of Artemis to her sister. Upon learning that Artemis's death had been faked, Cheshire dropped her grudge against Aqualad but Sportsmaster remained unconvinced, despite Cheshire's insistence. Artemis told Miss Martian to release them, as she would make Sportsmaster believe it was really her.

After M'gann released everyone from the mindscape, Tigress avoided a javelin strike and disarmed Sportsmaster with a maneuver he had taught her. Now convinced Tigress was really his daughter, Sportsmaster said he was pleased she and Aqualad were putting one over on the Light. Tigress asked her father for a favor, which Sportsmaster did, destroying the collar control with an explosive disc.

As Sportsmaster and Cheshire were about to escape, Deathstroke caught up with them and Tigress arrived soon after. As Cheshire and Tigress tussled, Tigress remarked she was touched Cheshire risked everything to avenge her as Cheshire claimed she was just angry Lian lost her babysitter. Miss Martian then showed up and slammed Deathstroke and Tigress to the wall, allowing Sportsmaster and Cheshire to get away. After Deathstroke escaped Miss Martian's telekinetic hold and charged her, Tigress telepathically told M'gann she needed to escape. M'gann acknowledged her, mentally apologizing before she threw Deathstroke toward Tigress.[46]

June 2016

Santa Prisca
June 19, 00:00 ECT

Tigress was part of the Light's delegation for a summit with the Reach. As she removed her mask upon Black Beetle's insistence, she whispered to Kaldur'ahm that the two were in over their heads.

The summit led to a confrontation between Black Beetle and Black Manta, forcing Deathstroke and Tigress to intervene. She blocked a stinger bolt aimed at Ra's al Ghul and was knocked into him. Tigress apologized, which Ra's said was not necessary, but his eyes were then drawn to the Glamour Charm around her neck. After Kaldur stepped in between Manta and Black Beetle and got both to stand down, Ra's approached Tigress and removed the charm, revealing her true identity of Artemis and explaining to everyone about the charm.

The Reach ambassador concluded that Kaldur'ahm was in cahoots with Artemis and ordered Black Beetle to kill them both. Deathstroke shot them both in the chest, apparently killing them. Kaldur then released a dead man's switch that generated holographic images, revealing how the Light had merely used the Reach for its own personal gain. When Vandal Savage revealed to an angry Ambassador that the Light possessed the crystal key to the Warworld, Artemis and Aqualad stood up, revealing they were not really dead, then "Deathstroke" revealed herself as Miss Martian and other Team members arrived on the scene. Dozens of League of Shadows agents then arrived, but some were Team members in disguise.

As everyone engaged in battle, Artemis watched as Black Beetle stabbed Ra's through the chest, then was pushed aside by Ubu as he tended to his master. Artemis charged them, but Ubu kicked her away and escaped with Ra's. Kid Flash caught her and told her he didn't know whether to kiss her or kill her for putting him through everything, to which Artemis told him to hold that thought until they were alone, after which they battled a group of Shadows.

After the Team won a decisive victory and Aqualad lamented about the loose ends that remained, Artemis, Nightwing and Kid Flash all reassured him. Artemis noted that Aqualad had crippled the Reach, broken the Light in half, took down Deathstroke before the Summit and that the proceedings had been holographically recorded, giving them evidence to clear the Justice League. Beast Boy then ran up and hugged Artemis, remarking how happy he was that she was alive.[47]

New York City
June 20, 06:16 EDT

Along with Kid Flash and Impulse, Artemis infested a corridor of the Reach flagship. The squad dispatched the Reach soldiers present with super-speed and projectile weaponry.[48]

June 20, 08:16 EDT

When Magnetic Field Disruptors planted by the Reach threatened the Earth, Artemis joined 39 other heroes of Earth in a briefing in Metropolis. The heroes would use a computer virus provided by Lex Luthor to safely disable the disruptors. The heroes were paired off with another into twenty squads: one member would run interference against weapons guarding the disruptors, allowing the other to get close enough to plant the virus.[48]

June 20, 14:34 CEST

Artemis was assigned to Omega Squad, and worked alongside Kid Flash. While attempting to defuse the MFD, the pair bantered. Kid Flash wanted to return to Paris once they don't have a world to save. She replied that there is always a world to save. She unleashed an arrow that dispersed powerful magnetic pellets that attached to the drones, and drew them towards each them until they short-circuited. This allowed Kid Flash to plant the virus and deactivate the disruptor. As she was reporting their success to headquarters, Kid Flash silenced her with a kiss. They agreed that perhaps they could play hero and still have a life,[49] and kissed passionately, much to the confusion of Lucas Carr over the unfinished report.[48]

The Watchtower
June 20, post-07:35 CDT

Artemis and Wally returned to the Watchtower just as Flash and Impulse attempted to defuse the triggered chrysalis of a previously-undetected MFD located in the Earth's Magnetic North Pole. She wondered to Wally whether the kinetic energy from the trails left by Flash and Impulse would be sufficient to siphon off the energy of the chrysalis, but he had already left via Zeta-Tube to join them.[48]

The Team rushed to the location, with Artemis in tow, aboard the bio-ship. Upon reaching the location, Kid Flash's participation provided enough energy to defuse the Reach weapon. Unfortunately, victory came at a price. Kid Flash's slower speed made him the exit valve of the deflected energy, and his body vanished after he absorbed too much. After the vortex vanished, Artemis frantically searched for Wally, but could not see him anywhere. Flash, who had seen his nephew disappear, told her that Wally wanted her to know that he loved her. Artemis was devastated at the news.[48]

Central City
June 20, 22:16 CDT

Artemis visited Wally's parents to break the news. She dissolved into tears before she could utter a single word, and the three comforted each other.[48]

July 2016

The Watchtower
July 4, 21:16 EDT

Artemis, now garbed in her Tigress outfit, approached Bart, who was staring at the newly placed hologram of the fallen Wally West, and commented that he looked good in his new costume. The speedster, now garbed in Wally's yellow and red costume, and having adopted the codename Kid Flash, wasn't sure and felt like a fraud, a sham. She reassured him that Wally would have wanted it that way. When he commented on her costume, she explained that Artemis, the hero, was Wally's partner, and she needed to distance herself from that part of her life. Now, she wanted to try Tigress as a blonde.

Aqualad summoned everyone to the mission room, where Batman informed the Team that they would now operate side by side with the Justice League from the Watchtower. Not because Mount Justice was destroyed, but because they earned the right to do so before the league left the heroes to their devices. Aqualad then informed the assembled group that although the Team has accomplished much, a lot still needed to be done. He assigned Tigress to Beta Squad to investigate LexCorp's reuse of the Reach soft drink under a new name, and instructed them to gather evidence.[48]


Artemis and Brucely moved to Star City and began living with her brother-in-law, Will Harper, and niece, Lian Nguyen-Harper.[50] It would take Artemis two years to recover from Wally's death.[51]


July 2018

Star City
July 29, 07:16 PDT
July 30, 00:00 EDT


She has been trained by her father,[12] making her an impressive archer and combatant, although she is not quite as polished or as physically strong as Red Arrow.[52]

  • Above-average human conditioning: Having undergone an evidently vigorous and intensive training regimen, Artemis has demonstrated impressive physical feats for a human of her age and size.[7]
    • Speed: Artemis is shown to be able to run at above-average speed for someone her age in combat situations.[12]
    • Endurance: Artemis appears able to maintain her stamina during long combative situations.
    • Agility: Artemis has proven to be at a high level of human agility, able to move, dodge and react to dangers with impressive agility.[21]
    • Strength: Artemis's physical strength is above most young women her age, as she is able to strike out full grown adults with a single blow and hold up people who are considerably heavier than her. She is capable of pressing her entire body weight. She can also do front flips holding all her weight on one arm. She has the strength of someone who engages in intensive exercise.[12]
    • Ambidexterity: Artemis is shown to be ambidextrous, as she draws her bow with her left and right hand.
  • Marksmanship: Artemis is an impressive marksman, able to hit assorted targets with assorted projectiles with ease and accuracy. She prefers using archery based weapons such as a compound bow or a crossbow. She has mastered the longbow, the shortbow,[53] the crossbow and a myriad of trick arrows. She can also shoot 2-3 arrows at a time and have them all hit their mark simultaneously. Her skills are such that she is able to hit targets inches in size meters away.[7]

Tigress kicking Black Beetle

  • Martial artist: Artemis is a skilled martial artist. She is able to take out multiple attackers with relative ease.[13] She could also contend with the highly trained Nightwing[16] and managed to strike the warrior Black Beetle.[47]
  • Acrobatics: Artemis is proficient in basic acrobatics.[12]
  • Above average intellect: Her intelligence is above average. She and Kid Flash both understand complex scientific terms.[22] She was granted a full Wayne Foundation Scholarship to Gotham Academy.[10]
    • Tracking: Artemis is capable of hunting down opponents who attempt to evade capture.[3]
    • First aid: Artemis has demonstrated some skills in emergency medicine when she tended to the dehydrated Aqualad,[12] and provided a sling for Kid Flash's broken arm.[28]
    • Multilingualism: Artemis can speak fluently in English, Vietnamese,[14] and French,[54] and excels in Spanish at school.[55]


As Artemis

Artemis wielding her bow.

  • Bow and Arrow: Like her mentor, Green Arrow, Artemis uses a bow and arrows in combat. Her bow is a compound bow (unlike Green Arrow, who uses a recurve bow).[3] When she is not using it, Artemis has been shown to be able to fold her bow inwards, and quickly snap it back into place when she needs it. She has occasionally used her bow to strike her opponents if she did not have time to shoot an arrow.[7] Her arrowheads are also differently shaped to those of Green Arrow—Artemis's are smoother and have no barbs, while Green Arrow's are more jagged and have two.[56]
  • Trick arrows: Like Green Arrow and Red Arrow, she has various trick arrows that she can use. So far she has been shown using: exploding arrow,[3] knock-out gas arrow,[3] grappling hook arrow,[22] bola arrow,[12] adhesive arrow,[7] impact arrow,[7] lasso arrow,[7] explosive arrow that splits into three once shot,[13] foam arrow that can release a high-density polyurethane foam to engulf and incapacitate its targets,[29] smoke screen arrow,[9] fire arrow,[9] net arrow,[8] and tracker arrow.[8]
  • Crossbow: She also uses a collapsible crossbow, as seen when she was dressed in civilian clothes.[22] She keeps the crossbow in the pouch on her leg while in uniform. It is pre-loaded with bolts.[21]
  • Handheld telescope: She uses it to scout long distances, and to make out details.[7]
  • Rebreather: She uses it to breathe underwater, after nearly drowning two missions in a row.[28]
  • Stealth-tech[13]

As Tigress

  • Bolts: Artemis carries orange/brown bolts for her crossbow. She stores them in her utility belt.
  • Blowpipe: A blowpipe with sedative darts.[16]
  • Bolas: Weighted balls connected by a rope, meant to entangle people.[16]
  • Crossbow: She has not given up trick arrows, as she has at least one bolt that opens as a net.[16] Another dispenses the high density polyurethane foam used by the Arrow family.[47]
  • Darts: Coated with a drug invented by Artemis's father, Sportsmaster, which causes catatonia for weeks.[45]
  • Explosive Pellets: Explodes on impact.[45]
  • Glamour Charm:(formerly) Originally created by Zatanna, Nightwing gave Artemis the charm so she could use it to alter her appearance in order to go undercover.[43]
  • Smoke bomb: A bomb filled with smoke that enables her to get away, quickly and stealthily.[44]
  • Sword: Stored in the sheath, which Tigress carries on her back.[46]
  • Darkwear[57]


Kid Flash

Main article: Kid Flash
Main article: Artemis and Kid Flash

Kid Flash and Artemis did not get along when they first met. He considered her the reason Red Arrow didn't join, and blamed her for every minor setback.[3] Likewise, she thought he was just annoying,[12] and did not like

Artemis and Kid Flash.

how he continually tried to hit on M'gann.[22] Their true feelings for each other were different, though. They got along perfectly when both their memories had been wiped,[12] and Wally was genuinely distraught after witnessing Artemis's "death" in a telepathic training exercise gone wrong.[29] In the aftermath, both asked Black Canary not to tell the other of their true feelings.[58] Wally eventually became more open to her, admitting he trusted her and she earned her place on the Team. His opinion changed drastically when it turned out she misdirected them and caused a mission to fail on purpose,[8] but he quickly turned around when she explained the reason.[32]

When Wally decided New Year's Day was the opportune moment to kiss her, both agreed they should have done it much earlier.[33] Their relationship lasted, though Wally had a habit of forgetting Valentine's Day. She and Wally moved to Palo Alto, adopted a pit bull and they attended college together there[14] until Nightwing needed her to fake her death for a secret mission only he, Kid Flash, Artemis, and Aqualad knew about.[43]

She had her doubts in the mission and missed Wally and their retirement.[46] She was reunited with him when he helped the Team extract her and Aqualad, and like him, longed for some time alone together.[47] They stayed close together when they helped stop a Reach plan to destroy the world. Her life was ripped apart when Wally sacrificed himself to save the Earth.

Needing distance, Artemis Crock decided to retire her green costume, which she considered belonging to Artemis, Kid Flash's partner.[48]


Main article: Robin/Nightwing

When Artemis joined, Robin was one of the first to accept her on the Team.[3] Though the two did not interact as often as some of the other members of the Team, the two clearly trusted each other. More importantly, they understood each other, being the only two in the Team without super powers.[5] Being a detective, Dick was able to figure out Artemis's secrets,[32] and though he had fun teasing her about them,[5] he did respect them enough to keep them, until she was ready to disclose them herself. After she did, he stated that it didn't matter, because she wasn't her family.[32] Years later he brought her in on the plan to place Aqualad in deep cover in Black Manta's organization, which shows his trust in her, and his faith in her abilities.[43]

Green Arrow

Main article: Green Arrow

Artemis was Green Arrow's protégé, following Red Arrow's decision to go solo. Their history together was a short one, having met only one day before her official presentation to the Team.[21] Since archery was her primary skill, she had admired him from a distance, and chose green as a costume color because of him.[59]

Paula Crock

Main article: Paula Crock

Artemis has a moment with her mother.

Artemis shared a small apartment in Gotham with her mother, a Vietnamese woman, who is confined to a wheelchair after an accident on the job. Paula has a previous criminal history, and had spent six years in prison, before only recently being released and reunited with her daughter.[7] She was adamant that Artemis made a better life for herself, and take the opportunities she never had.[10][21]

Paula was emotionally devastated at Artemis's supposed death in the hands of Aqualad. She confided to Kid Flash that the two days following her daughter's death was the hardest in her life—harder than prison, or when she lost the use of her legs.[1] She has not yet fully recovered from her grief over two months after the funeral.[46]


Main article: Sportsmaster

Artemis and her father.

Artemis's father, Sportsmaster,[8] mercilessly pushed her and trained her for combat from an early age.[53] He is also the one who taught her how to use a bow and arrow. They have a very strained relationship, and Artemis mentioned that before she joined the Team he was constantly subjecting her to tests, and putting her against her sister Jade in fights.[12] Artemis always hoped the family could stay together,[5] but neither her father nor her mother felt that was a good idea.[7] Sportsmaster refers to Artemis as "Baby Girl",[8] and always has.[60]

Although Sportsmaster was angered at Artemis's supposed death, his anger seemed to stem from concerns about his professional reputation, and not familial ties. When Miss Martian gathered him, Cheshire, Tigress, Aqualad, and herself in a mindscape, Sportsmaster was unable to detect his own daughters' presence. However, when he was finally convinced that Artemis was actually alive and in a deep undercover mission, he was pleased at her "playing the Light for chumps". He readily granted the favor she asked, indicating that deep down, he does love his daughter.[46]

Red Arrow

Main article: Red Arrow

Red Arrow, Artemis and Green Arrow.

Artemis replaced Red Arrow as Green Arrow's protégé. On their first meeting, Red Arrow was not impressed, and knew full well that her story was a lie. He was impressed with her skill, but warned her not to betray his friends.[3] She eventually earned his trust after saving his life and the two become more accepting of the others presence.[2]

By 2018, their relationship had improved greatly thanks in part to Lian's birth. Artemis had moved in with Red Arrow to help him take care of Lian.[61]


Main article: Cheshire

Cheshire unmasked by Artemis.

Cheshire is Artemis's older sister, and once lived with Artemis and their parents, growing up to strongly dislike their father. When Artemis was young and their mother was sent to prison, Jade left the house. Artemis pleaded with her to stay, to keep the family together, but she would not budge. She would've taken Artemis with her but she thought that Artemis would only slow her down.[5]

In their guises as Artemis the hero and Cheshire, the sisters have a complicated relationship. While each is determined to frustrate the other, they both appear to genuinely care for each other. Artemis was visibly downcast when she learned that Cheshire's jet had crashed in the Smokey Mountains, and was similarly elated when Cheshire revealed that she had survived. Likewise, Cheshire rescued Artemis from an avalanche in the battle that ensued, and did not aid Sportsmaster when he attempted to "discipline" his errant child in Santa Prisca.[32]

Artemis's "death" at the hands of Aqualad greatly affected Cheshire, and she vowed to avenge her sister by killing him.[1] She risked everything to infiltrate the Manta-Sub with her father to exact her vengeance. When she discovered the truth, Cheshire immediately dropped her vendetta. Artemis called Cheshire's act to be sweet but Cheshire tried to conceal her selflessness from Tigress by saying that she sought vengeance because she was angry at the loss of a babysitter for Lian.[46]


Main article: Zatanna

Artemis and Zatanna gravitated towards each other—from their first meeting, Artemis could see that Zatanna would fit in great.[28] Though she didn't join the Team, Artemis would continue pressing the issue.[9][30] Zatanna reciprocated this friendship, offering to go out with Artemis on Halloween after Artemis learns about Miss Martian and Superboy's relationship.[9]

Artemis is there for her sad friend in her yearly reunion with her father.[9][62]


Main article: Superboy

Early on, Artemis had a crush on Superboy, and was not at all frightened to show it.[3] She later found out that M'gann and Conner were dating and although she was upset at first, she came to accept their relationship.[9] They later became good friends to the point Artemis began to see Conner as a brother and becomes grief-stricken after learning about his death.[63]


Background information

  • Artemis was the first character revealed to have been cast in the show when voice actress Stephanie Lemelin announced on her blog in February 2010 that she had been cast in the series Young Justice League as the character Arrowette, one of Green Arrow's sidekicks from DC Comics, but the post was soon after taken down.[64][65] When Warner Brothers. officially announced the series (as Young Justice) in April, it was revealed that the character was actually a different character called Artemis.[66]
Greg Weisman has since explained that Artemis and Arrowette (Cissie King-Jones) are two different characters. Furthermore, he said:
"Artemis is also not Speedy (Mia) or Wonder Girl (any of them) or an Amazon (at all) or from Apokolips (period). But she is an existing DC Comics character. We did NOT create her".[67]
In late December 2010, over a month before Artemis's first appearance, Cartoon Network produced bio cards for all Young Justice members on their Young Justice website. The bio card for Artemis listed her secret identity as "Classified" but called her the niece of Green Arrow.[4] In Artemis's first appearance, the episode "Infiltrator" on 11 February 2011, it was revealed that Artemis is not really Green Arrow's niece, but that this is a cover story she, Batman, and Green Arrow himself tell the rest of the Team.[3]
She was finally revealed as being Artemis Crock in the episode "Downtime".
  • In the comics prior to the events of Flashpoint, Artemis Crock was the villainess Tigress. She later married Icicle Jr., and she gave birth to a baby girl named Isabelle Rose Mahkent. Following the 2011 reboot of the DCU, a character named Artemis, who bears a resemblance to the Young Justice version, appeared briefly in the rebooted Teen Titans title, as a hostage of the group N.O.W.H.E.R.E.
  • Artemis's costume seems to take influence from several other archers from DC comics, especially those of Speedy (Mia Dearden) and Arrowette (Cissie King-Jones). Both are associated with the Green Arrow family.
  • This is Artemis's second animated appearance. She appeared in a cameo in Batman: The Brave and the Bold.


  1. Promotional images and the tie-in comic erroneously depict her with blue eyes.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Weisman, Greg (writer) & Murphy, Doug (director) (September 29, 2012). "Satisfaction". Young Justice. Season 2. Episode 8. Cartoon Network.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Weisman, Jon (writer) & Chang, Michael (director) (April 7, 2012). "Performance". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 24. Cartoon Network.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Weisman, Jon (writer) & Oliva, Jay (director) (February 11, 2011). "Infiltrator". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 6. Cartoon Network.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Gross, Ed (2010-12-26). Young Justice: Illustrated Character Bios [dead link]. SuperHero Tooniverse. Retrieved 2011-02-12. Archived 2013-06-17.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Weisman, Jon (writer) & Chang, Michael (director) (September 30, 2011). "Homefront". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 12. Cartoon Network.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Weisman, Greg (2011-05-17). Question #13345. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 Weisman, Greg, Kevin Hopps (w). Jones, Christopher (p). Davis, Dan (i). Atkinson, Zac (col). Mangual, Carlos M. (let). Chadwick, Jim (ed). "Rabbit Holes" Young Justice 7 (August 24, 2011), New York, NY: DC Comics
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 David, Peter (writer) & Oliva, Jay (director) (March 31, 2012). "Insecurity". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 23. Cartoon Network.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 David, Peter (writer) & Oliva, Jay (director) (November 18, 2011). "Secrets". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 18. Cartoon Network.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Hopps, Kevin (writer) & Oliva, Jay (director) (March 4, 2011). "Downtime". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 8. Cartoon Network.
  11. Weisman, Greg (2011-01-13). Question #12838. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2011-01-14.
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 Dubuc, Nicole (writer) & Chang, Michael (director) (March 11, 2011). "Bereft". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 9. Cartoon Network.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Weisman, Greg (writer) & Youngberg, Matt (director) (October 21, 2011). "Humanity". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 15. Cartoon Network.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Weisman, Greg (writer) & Divar, Tim (director) (May 19, 2012). "Salvage". Young Justice. Season 2. Episode 4. Cartoon Network.
  15. Weisman, Greg (2013-11-04). Question #19169. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 Weisman, Jon (writer) & Zwyer, Mel (director) (October 6, 2012). "Darkest". Young Justice. Season 2. Episode 9. Cartoon Network.
  17. Weisman, Greg (2011-11-18). Question #13701. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  18. Weisman, Greg (2011-02-06). Question #14167. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
  19. Weisman, Greg (2012-01-26). Question #14073. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
  20. 225
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 Hopps, Kevin, Greg Weisman (w). Davis, Dan, Christopher Jones (p). Davis, Dan (i). Atkinson, Zac (col). Sienty, Dezi (let). Chadwick, Jim (ed). "Wonderland" Young Justice 8 (September 21, 2011), New York, NY: DC Comics
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 Pugsley, Tom (writer) & Chang, Michael (director) (February 18, 2011). "Denial". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 7. Cartoon Network.
  23. Hopps, Kevin, Greg Weisman (w). Davis, Dan, Christopher Jones (p). Davis, Dan (i). Atkinson, Zac (col). Sienty, Dezi (let). Chadwick, Jim (ed). "Cold Case" Young Justice 9 (October 19, 2011), New York, NY: DC Comics
  24. Weisman, Greg, Kevin Hopps (w). Jones, Christopher (p). Davis, Dan (i). Atkinson, Zac (col). Sienty, Dezi (let). Chadwick, Jim (ed). "The Pit..." Young Justice 11 (December 21, 2011), New York, NY: DC Comics
  25. Weisman, Greg, Kevin Hopps (w). Jones, Christopher (a). Atkinson, Zac (col). Sienty, Dezi (let). Chadwick, Jim (ed). "Common Denominators" Young Justice 16 (May 30, 2012), New York, NY: DC Comics
  26. Pugsley, Tom (writer) & Oliva, Jay (director) (October 7, 2011). "Alpha Male". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 13. Cartoon Network.
  27. Weisman, Greg (w). Jones, Christopher (a). Atkinson, Zac (col). Sienty, Dezi (let). Gaydos, Sarah (ed). "Monkey Business" Young Justice 18 (July 18, 2012), New York, NY: DC Comics
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 Hopps, Kevin (writer) & Chang, Michael (director) (October 14, 2011). "Revelation". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 14. Cartoon Network.
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Dubuc, Nicole (writer) & Oliva, Jay (director) (November 4, 2011). "Failsafe". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 16. Cartoon Network.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Weisman, Greg (writer) & Chang, Michael (director) (March 3, 2012). "Misplaced". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 19. Cartoon Network.
  31. Weisman, Jon (writer) & Cook, Victor (director) (March 10, 2012). "Coldhearted". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 20. Cartoon Network.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 Hopps, Kevin (writer) & Oliva, Jay, Divar, Tim (directors) (April 14, 2012). "Usual Suspects". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 25. Cartoon Network.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Weisman, Greg (writer) & Chang, Michael, Montgomery, Lauren (directors) (April 21, 2012). "Auld Acquaintance". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 26. Cartoon Network.
  34. Weisman, Greg (2012-10-29). Question #16504. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2012-12-13.
  35. Weisman, Greg (2013-06-03). Question #18652. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
  36. Weisman, Greg (2013-01-07). Question #20123. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2014-01-07.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Scott, Sharon, Brandon Vietti, Greg Weisman (writers), Young Justice: Legacy (November 19, 2013): Greece. Santa Ana, CA: Little Orbit
  38. Scott, Sharon, Brandon Vietti, Greg Weisman (writers), Young Justice: Legacy (November 19, 2013): Siberia. Santa Ana, CA: Little Orbit
  39. Scott, Sharon, Brandon Vietti, Greg Weisman (writers), Young Justice: Legacy (November 19, 2013): Gotham City. Santa Ana, CA: Little Orbit
  40. 40.0 40.1 Scott, Sharon, Brandon Vietti, Greg Weisman (writers), Young Justice: Legacy (November 19, 2013): Bialya. Santa Ana, CA: Little Orbit
  41. Weisman, Greg (w). Jones, Christopher (a). Atkinson, Zac (col). Sienty, Dezi (let). Gaydos, Sarah (ed). "Players, Chapter One: Wheelbarrow, Shoe, Thimble" Young Justice 20 (September 19, 2012), New York, NY: DC Comics
  42. Weisman, Greg (2012-11-09). Question #16858. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 Hopps, Kevin, Giacoppo, Paul (writers) & Divar, Tim (director) (June 9, 2012). "Depths". Young Justice. Season 2. Episode 7. Cartoon Network.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Hopps, Kevin (writer) & Divar, Tim (director) (Originally released on iTunes on October 14, 2012, broadcast on January 5, 2013). "Before the Dawn". Young Justice. Season 2. Episode 10. Cartoon Network.
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 Weisman, Greg (writer) & Divar, Tim (director) (January 26, 2013). "The Fix". Young Justice. Season 2. Episode 13. Cartoon Network.
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 46.3 46.4 46.5 Hopps, Kevin (writer) & Divar, Tim (director) (February 16, 2013). "Complications". Young Justice. Season 2. Episode 16. Cartoon Network.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 Weisman, Greg (writer) & Divar, Tim (director) (March 9, 2013). "Summit". Young Justice. Season 2. Episode 19. Cartoon Network.
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 48.4 48.5 48.6 48.7 Hopps, Kevin (writer) & Murphy, Doug (director) (March 16, 2013). "Endgame". Young Justice. Season 2. Episode 20. Cartoon Network.
  49. Weisman, Greg (2013-03-18). YOUNG JUSTICE: INVASION: "Endgame": stuff cut for time. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2013-03-21.
  50. Weisman, Greg (writer) & Berkeley, Christopher (director) (January 4, 2019). "Princes All". Young Justice. Season 3. Episode 1. DC Universe.
  51. Weisman, Greg (writer) & Berkeley, Christopher (director) (July 2, 2019). "Illusion of Control". Young Justice. Season 3. Episode 16. DC Universe.
  52. Weisman, Greg (2011-02-09). Question #13003. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2011-04-16.
  53. 53.0 53.1 figurefan (2012-01-16). Young Justice: 6-inch Series: Artemis by Mattel. livejournal. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
  54. Weisman, Greg (2011-08-11). Question #13440. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
  55. Weisman, Greg (2012-01-11). Question #13972. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
  56. Dubuc, Nicole (writer) & Chang, Michael (director) (February 4, 2011). "Schooled". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 5. Cartoon Network.
  57. Robinson, Andrew (writer) & Zwyer, Mel (director) (January 4, 2019). "Royal We". Young Justice. Season 3. Episode 2. DC Universe.
  58. Robinson, Andrew (writer) & Chang, Michael (director) (November 11, 2011). "Disordered". Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 17. Cartoon Network.
  59. Weisman, Greg (2011-10-26). Question #13581. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
  60. Weisman, Greg (2012-08-14). Question #15304. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2012-10-15.
  61. Weisman, Greg (writer) & Heuck, Vinton (director) (January 18, 2019). "Home Fires". Young Justice. Season 3. Episode 9. DC Universe.
  62. Vogel, Michael (writer) & Heuck, Vinton (director) (January 11, 2019). "Private Security". Young Justice. Season 3. Episode 4. DC Universe.
  63. Hohlfeld, Brian (writer) & Heuck, Vinton (director) (November 4, 2021). "Tale of Two Sisters". Young Justice. Season 4. Episode 05. HBO Max.
  64. Parkin, JK (2010-02-02). Is Warner Bros. working on a Young Justice cartoon?. Robot 6, Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2010-12-9.
  65. Marnell, Blair (2010-02-03). 'Young Justice League' Animated Series In The Works?. MTV Splash Page. Retrieved 2010-12-9.
  66. Harvey, James (2010-04-21). "Young Justice" Animated Series Officially Announced at Cartoon Network 2010 Upfronts. The World's Finest. Retrieved 2010-12-09.
  67. Weisman, Greg (2010-07-30). Question #12350. Ask Greg. Retrieved 2010-12-09.